Computation of femoral canine morphometric parameters in three-dimensional geometrical models

Savio G, Baroni T, Concheri G, Baroni E, Meneghello R, Longo F, Isola M. Vet Surg. 2016 Nov; 45 (8): 987-995.

OBJECTIVE: To define and validate a method for the measurement of 3-dimensional (3D) morphometric parameters in polygonal mesh models of canine femora.

STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo/computerized model.

SAMPLE POPULATION:Sixteen femora from 8 medium to large-breed canine cadavers (mean body weight 28.3 kg, mean age 5.3 years).

METHODS: Femora were measured with a 3D scanner, obtaining 3D meshes. A computer-aided design-based (CAD) software tool was purposely developed, which allowed automatic calculation of morphometric parameters on a mesh model. Anatomic and mechanical lateral proximal femoral angles (aLPFA and mLPFA), anatomic and mechanical lateral distal femoral angles (aLDFA and mLDFA), femoral neck angle (FNA), femoral torsion angle (FTA), and femoral varus angle (FVA) were measured in 3D space. Angles were also measured onto projected planes and radiographic images.

RESULTS: Mean (SD) femoral angles (degrees) measured in 3D space were: aLPFA 115.2 (3.9), mLPFA 105.5 (4.2), aLDFA 88.6 (4.5), mLDFA 93.4 (3.9), FNA 129.6 (4.3), FTA 45 (4.5), and FVA -1.4 (4.5). Onto projection planes, aLPFA was 103.7 (5.9), mLPFA 98.4 (5.3), aLDFA 88.3 (5.5), mLDFA 93.6 (4.2), FNA 132.1 (3.5), FTA 19.1 (5.7), and FVA -1.7 (5.5). With radiographic imaging, aLPFA was 109.6 (5.9), mLPFA 105.3 (5.2), aLDFA 92.6 (3.8), mLDFA 96.9 (2.9), FNA 120.2 (8.0), FTA 30.2 (5.7), and FVA 2.6 (3.8).

CONCLUSION: The proposed method gives reliable and consistent information about 3D bone conformation. Results are obtained automatically and depend only on femur morphology, avoiding any operator-related bias. Angles in 3D space are different from those measured with standard radiographic methods, mainly due to the different definition of femoral axes.

Small animal: