Distal Extremities

OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcome of bone plate fixation of distal radius and ulna fractures in toy breed dogs treated with conventional bone plates.

METHODS: Records of 15 toy breed dogs with distal radius and ulna fractures were retrospectively reviewed for signalment, method of fixation, complications and clinical and radiographic assessments. A telephone-based owner questionnaire was conducted to determine long-term function and client satisfaction.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate proximal tibial anatomy and its influence on anisometry of extracapsular stabilizing sutures in small dog breeds.

An approximately three-month-old, 0.45 kg female Domestic Shorthaired kitten with stiff hyperextended hindlimbs distal to the talo-central joint is reported. Attempts at repositioning of the joints by flexion failed while increased manipulative forces caused signs of pain and vocalization. Orthogonal radiographic views revealed a significant malarticulation of the tarsus. Goniometric measurments revealed a 145° extensor and 95° internal torsional deformity. 

A young Labrador Retriever was presented for treatment of severe distal hindlimb necrosis caused by bandage ischemia. During digit amputation at the metatarsophalangeal joints, the third and fourth digital pads were salvaged and transferred to the metatarsal stump to create a weight-bearing surface. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was utilized for flap immobilization and to promote granulation tissue in the remaining wound defect.

OBJECTIVES: To describe the normal anatomy of the soft tissues of the canine tarsus as identified on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to evaluate specific MRI sequences and planes for observing structures of diagnostic interest.

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study.

ANIMALS: Canine cadavers (n = 3).

OBJECTIVE:  To evaluate the influence of epidemiologic, surgical, and mechanical factors on the durations of bone consolidation and external fixation after distraction osteogenesis in dogs.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.

Authors: Vallefuoco R1, Manassero M, Leperlier D, Scotti S, Viateau V, Moissonnier P.
Journal: Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol

Objective: To report our clinical experience in the surgical treatment of feline thoraco-lumbar vertebral fracture-luxations using optimal safe implantation corridors as previously described in vitro. Study design: Retrospective clinical study. Materials and Methods: Medical records and radiographs of cats with vertebral fracture-luxations stabilized by screws and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using optimal safe implantation corridors between 2009 and 2011 were reviewed.

Authors: Cappellari F1, Piras L, Panichi E, Ferretti A, Peirone B.
Journal: Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol

Objective: To evaluate the outcome of treatment of antebrachial and crural septic non-union fractures in dogs using circular external skeletal fixation (CESF), and to document the type and frequency of complications associated with this technique. Methods: The medical records of all dogs with infected antebrachial and crural non-union fractures treated using the methods of Ilizarov at the Department of Animal Pathology of the University of Turin between 2006 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed.

Authors: Mostafa AA1, Griffon DJ, Thomas MW, Constable PD.
Journal: Vet Surg


To (1) develop a technique to determine the anteversion angle (AA) of the femur on a single radiograph; (2) determine the correlation between this technique and other published radiographic and computed tomographic (CT) methods; and (3) compare the diagnostic outcome of these methods in determining the level at which femoral torsion occurred in Labrador Retrievers with cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) deficiency.


Cross-sectional clinical study.


Authors: Wood MC1, Fox DB, Tomlinson JL.
Journal: Vet Surg



To describe a radiographic method for determination of the mechanical axes and joint orientation lines in orthogonal planes for the canine humerus and establish a range of normal joint orientation angles in a population of large breed dogs.


Radiographic study.


Humeri (n = 50) of skeletally mature, nonchondrodystrophic canine cadavers, weighing 20-40 kg with no evidence of orthopedic disease.