BACKGROUND/CONTEXT: Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is associated with longitudinal remodeling of paravertebral tissues. While chronic vertebral changes in advanced stages of DDD are well-studied, very little data exists on acute vertebral bone remodeling at the onset and progression of DDD.

PURPOSE: To longitudinally characterize bony remodeling in a rodent model of disc injury-induced DDD.

STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: In vivo animal study involving a rat annulus fibrosus injury model of DDD.

Category: Spine

BACKGROUND: Titanium (Ti)-6Al-4V alloy, which is widely used in spinal instrumentation with a pedicle screw (PS) system. However, significant clinical problems, including loosening and back-out of PSs, persist. During the last decade, a novel technology that produces bioactive Ti from chemical and heat treatments has been reported that induces the spontaneous formation of a hydroxyapatite (HA) layer on the surface of Ti materials.

Category: Spine

Artificial disc replacement alone is unable to completely cure cervical degenerative diseases; thus, a stabilization device markedly improves patient recovery.

In order to meet this requirement, an anterior spinal instrumentation combining a prosthetic disc nucleus with a flexible stabilization device (ASI combining PDN/FD) was developed. An artificial disc was designed and manufactured using polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA-H) with a repeated freeze-melting technique, and subsequently the dehydration and swelling properties of the PVA-H were investigated.

Category: Spine

Cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM), also known as wobbler syndrome, affects mainly large and giant-breed dogs, causing compression of the cervical spinal cord and/or nerve roots.

Structural and dynamic components seem to play a role in the development of CSM; however, pathogenesis is not yet fully understood. Finite element models have been used for years in human medicine to study the dynamic behavior of structures, but it has been mostly overlooked in veterinary studies.

We compared clinical outcomes after ventral fixation in dogs with atlantoaxial instability (AAI) on the basis of the presence or absence of atlantooccipital overlapping (AOO).

Of 41 dogs diagnosed with AAI and treated ventral fixation, 12 exhibited AOO (AOO group), whereas 29 did not (non-AOO group).

The AOO group had significantly higher neurological scores before (P=0.024) and 1 month after (P=0.033) surgery compared with the non-AOO group; however, no significant differences were observed between the groups 2 months after surgery.

OBJECTIVE: To develop a patient-specific 3-dimensional (3D) printed drill guide for placement of cervical transpedicular screws and to assess its accuracy.

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case-series.

SAMPLE POPULATION: Thirty-two cervical pedicle screws (CPS) placed in 3 large breed dogs.

Category: Spine

OBJECTIVE: This case series describes the clinical presentation, management and outcome of three cats diagnosed with cervical intervertebral disc disease that underwent decompressive ventral slot surgery.

METHODS: This is a retrospective case series evaluating client-owned cats undergoing a ventral slot surgical procedure to manage cervical intervertebral disc disease (n = 3).

RESULTS: A routine ventral slot surgery was performed in each case without complication, resulting in postoperative neurological improvement in all three cases.

Category: Spine

OBJECTIVE: To determine the biomechanical behavior of a novel distraction-stabilization system, consisting of an intervertebral distraction bolt, polyaxial screws, and connecting rods, in the canine lumbosacral spine.

STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical study.

SAMPLE POPULATION: Cadaveric canine lumbosacral spines (L4-Cd3) (N = 8).

Category: Spine

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the occurrence and frequency of abnormalities at the second and third cervical vertebral junction (C2/3) in dogs with and without atlantoaxial instability (AAI).

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective multi-institutional case-controlled case series.

ANIMALS: One hundred and seventeen dogs with AAI and 117 dogs without AAI.

Category: Spine

OBJECTIVES: Ventral atlantoaxial stabilization techniques are challenging surgical procedures in dogs. Available surgical guidelines are based upon subjective anatomical landmarks, and limited radiographic and computed tomographic data.

Category: Imaging - Spine