Ultrasonographic information regarding the palmar region is currently lacking.
Metacarpal and phalangeal fractures may be associated with concurrent ligamentous injury.
This technique resulted in comparable complication and infection rates in canine PCA to previous published studies using hybrid dynamic compression plates.
3 Tesla MRA and MRI allow excellent visualization of the ligamentous morphology and may be helpful in the diagnostic process of carpal sprains in dogs.
Three-dimensional carpal kinematic analyses may improve our understanding of carpal injury and facilitate the development of novel treatments techniques.
The values established could be used as a reference for surgical treatment of angular deformities, malunions, non-unions, comminuted fractures, and future orthopaedic research