Sport Medicine

Authors: Hicks DA1, Millis DL.
Journal: VCOT


To determine ground reaction forces, head and pelvis vertical motion (HVM and PVM, respectively), and thoraco-lumbar lateral angular motion (LAM) of the spine using kinematic gait analysis in dogs with mild asymmetric weight-bearing of the pelvic limbs while trotting.


Authors: Fuchs A1, Goldner B1, Nolte I1, Schilling N2.
Journal: Vet J

To gain insight into the adaptive mechanisms to tripedal locomotion and increase understanding of the biomechanical consequences of limb amputation, this study investigated kinetic and temporal gait parameters in dogs before and after the loss of a hindlimb was simulated. Nine clinically sound Beagle dogs trotted on an instrumented treadmill and the ground reaction forces as well as the footfall patterns were compared between quadrupedal and tripedal locomotion.

Authors: Iddon J1, Lockyer RH, Frean SP.
Journal: J Small Anim Pract


To identify environmental and management factors affecting injury rate in racing greyhounds.


Surveys of racing injuries at two greyhound tracks in the UK were conducted using injury data collected by track veterinary surgeons. At Track A the relative frequency of common injuries was determined and compared with previously published studies conducted in the UK. At Track B the effects of month of the year, ambient temperature and track condition ("going") on injury rate were determined.

Category: Sport Medicine
Authors: Kapatkin AS1, Kim JY, Garcia-Nolan TC, Kim SY, Hayashi K, Hitchens PL, Stover SM.
Journal: Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol

Objectives: To develop a platform that used standard size force plates for large breed dogs to capture ground reaction force data from any size dog. Methods: A walkway platform was constructed to accommodate two force plates (60 cm x 40 cm) positioned in series to a variety of smaller sizes. It was constructed from a custom wood frame with thick aluminium sheet force plate covers that prevented transfer of load to the force plate, except for rectangular windows of three different dimensions.

Authors: Headrick JF1, Zhang S, Millard RP, Rohrbach BW, Weigel JP, Millis DL.
Journal: Am J Vet Res

Objective-To compare the 3-D motion of the pelvic limb among clinically normal dogs and dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)-deficient stifle joints following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) or lateral fabellar-tibial suture (LFS) stabilization by use of an inverse dynamics method. Animals-6 clinically normal dogs and 19 dogs with CCL-deficient stifle joints that had undergone TPLO (n = 13) or LFS (6) stabilization at a mean of 4 and 8 years, respectively, prior to evaluation.

Authors: Headrick JF1, Zhang S, Millard RP, Rohrbach BW, Weigel JP, Millis DL.
Journal: Am J Vet Res

Objective-To use an inverse dynamics method to describe the motion of the canine pelvic limb in 3 dimensions. Animals-6 healthy adult dogs. Procedures-For each dog, 16 anatomic and tracking markers were used to define the center of rotation for the pelvic limb joints and a kinematic model was created to describe the motion of the pelvic limb.

Authors: Krotscheck U1, Todhunter RJ, Nelson SA, Sutter NB, Mohammed HO.
Journal: Vet Surg


To determine if currently used ground reaction force (GRF) normalization methods are accurate and precise enough to be used on a single-limb basis.


Prospective clinical trial.


Clinically normal (n = 69) dogs and 40 dogs with unilateral ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments (CCL).


Authors: Guilliard MJ.
Journal: JSAP

To assess (2006 to 2012) conservative management for treatment of fractures of the third metatarsal bone (MT3) in racing greyhounds.
All racing greyhounds with MT3 fractures seen prospectively between 2006 and 2012 were included. Fracture morphology, type of conservative management, outcome and the time to a return to racing were recorded. Outcome was assessed either by communication with the trainer or by accessing the website of the Greyhound Board of Great Britain to find the complete racing history of the dog.

Authors: Fischer S, Anders A, Nolte I, Schilling N.
Journal: Vet J

This study evaluated adaptations in vertical force and temporal gait parameters to hind limb lameness in walking and trotting dogs. Eight clinically normal adult Beagles were allowed to ambulate on an instrumented treadmill at their preferred speed while the ground reaction forces were recorded for all limbs before and after a moderate, reversible, hind limb lameness was induced. At both gaits, vertical force was decreased in the ipsilateral and increased in the contralateral hind limb.

Authors: Cullen KL, Dickey JP, Bent LR, Thomason JJ, Moëns NM.
Journal: JAVMA

Objective-To characterize injuries (on the basis of type and severity of injury and affected region of the body) among dogs participating in agility training and competition events and examine associations between injury characteristics and perceived causes of injury. Design-Internet-based, retrospective, cross-sectional survey. Animals-3,801 privately owned dogs participating in agility training or trials.