Total hip arthroplasty to address chronic hip luxation with pseudoacetabulum formation in seven dogs

Authors: 
Jones SC, Bula E, Dyce J.
Vet Surg. 2019 Aug 26. doi: 10.1111/vsu.13317

OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcome of dogs treated with total hip arthroplasty (THA) for chronic hip luxation and pseudoacetabulum formation to that of dogs with simple hip dysplasia and secondary osteoarthritis.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, case-controlled study.

ANIMALS: Seven dogs with pseudoacetabulum (group 1) and 21 matched control dogs (group 2).

METHODS: Each dog in group 1 was matched with three control dogs, primarily according to similarity of THA implant type and size. Patterns of radiographic pathology were characterized in each dog. Outcome measures included operative time, acetabular cup position/orientation (inclination angle, angle of lateral opening, version angle) complications, and long-term outcomes. Outcome measures were compared between groups using linear regression (P = .05).

RESULTS: The presence of a pseudoacetabulum was associated with ilial remodeling and heterotopic bone formation concentric to the luxated femoral head. Exposing the native acetabulum and reducing the prosthesis were surgically challenging. The mean (SD) operative time of dogs in group 1 (96 [18] minutes) was longer than that of dogs in group 2 (63 [14] minutes; P = .00002). Cup position/orientation was not different between dogs in group 1 and group 2. One intraoperative complication and two minor postoperative complications occurred in group 1 dogs. All dogs had good long-term outcomes.

CONCLUSION: Total hip arthroplasty in dogs with a pseudoacetabulum was more challenging than in control dogs. However, the procedure provided good to excellent long-term clinical outcomes in all dogs.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Surgeons should be prepared for the specific surgical challenges associated with THA in dogs with pseudoacetabulum formation.

Small animal: