Cartilage

Authors: de Grauw, J.C.; van de Lest, C. H. A.; Brama, P.A.J.; Rambags, B.P.B.; van Weeren, P. R.
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Meloxicam is a commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in equine practice, but little is known about its in vivo effects on joint inflammation and cartilage turnover.

Objectives: To study the effects of meloxicam on biomarkers of inflammation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, and cartilage biomarkers in joints with experimental synovitis.

Category: Cartilage - Equine - NSAID - Treatment
Authors: Jennifer M. Newquist, DVM; Gary M. Baxter, VMD, MS, DACVS
Journal: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—To determine whether high plasma fibrinogen concentration (≥ 900 mg/dL) is a valid indicator of physeal or epiphyseal osteomyelitis in foals.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—17 foals with physeal or epiphyseal osteomyelitis with or without septic arthritis, 17 foals with septic arthritis alone, 20 foals with non–Rhodococcus equi pneumonia, and 22 healthy foals.

Category: Bone - Cartilage - Equine
Authors: Brama, P.A.J.; Holopainen, J.; van Weeren, P.R.; Firth, E.C.; Helminen, H.J.; Hyttinen, M.M.
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: There is ample evidence on topographical heterogeneity of the principal biochemical components of articular cartilage over the surface of the joint and the influence of loading thereon, but no information on depth-related zonal variation in horses.

Objectives: To study depth-related zonal variation in proteoglycan (PG) and collagen content in equine articular cartilage.

Category: Cartilage - Equine
Authors: Woong Kim, ME; Chris E. Kawcak, DVM, PhD; C. Wayne McIlwraith, BVSc, PhD; Elwyn C. Firth, BVSc, PhD; Brian H. McArdle, PhD; Neil D. Broom, PhD
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To investigate the influence of early conditioning exercise on the development of gross cartilage defects and swelling behavior of cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) in the midcarpal joint of horses.

Animals—12 Thoroughbreds.

Category: Cartilage - Equine
Authors: David D. Frisbie, DVM, PhD; Christopher E. Kawcak, DVM, PhD; C. Wayne McIlwraith, BVSc, PhD
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To assess the clinical, biochemical, and histologic effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of horses with experimentally induced osteoarthritis (OA).

Animals—Twenty-four 2- to 3-year-old horses without evidence of lameness.

Category: Bone - Cartilage - Equine
Authors: Barr, E.D.; Pinchbeck, G.L.; Clegg, P.D.; Boyde, A.; Riggs, C.M.
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Thoroughbred racehorses are commonly affected by subchondral bone injury, but the exact prevalence and the distribution of palmar/plantar osteochondral disease (POD) lesions are unknown. The relationship between pathologies has not been elucidated, although it is widely accepted that POD is a manifestation of traumatic overload arthrosis.

Authors: Yamanokuchi, K.; Tagami, M.; Nishimatsu, E.; Shimizu, Y.; Hirose, Y.; Komatsu, K.; Misumi, K.
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Measurement of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) in serum has potential for diagnosis of equine osteoarthritis (OA), but clinical use is currently limited by the lack of specificity of an inhibition ELISA as well as by baseline increases due to exercise. Improved methods for ELISA with increased antigen specificity and sensitivity are therefore required for reliable measurement.

Hypothesis: Measurement of the serum level of COMP by sandwich ELISA allows identification of horses with OA.

Category: Cartilage - Equine
Authors: Rachel C. Murray, PhD, Tony S. Blunden, PhD, Marion V. Branch, PhD, Carolyne A. Tranquille, BS, Sue J. Dyson, PhD, Tim D. H. Parkin, PhD, Allen E. Goodship, PhD
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To investigate effects of age on thickness and morphologic characteristics of hyaline cartilage, calcified cartilage, total cartilage, and subchondral bone (SCB) in the equine tarsometatarsal joint.

Sample Population—23 tarsal joints from cadavers of 23 ponies (11 days to 25 years old); ponies were limited to pasture exercise and euthanatized for reasons not related to this study.

Category: Cartilage - Equine
Authors: MARTIN A. VIDAL, BVSc, MS, Diplomate ACVS , SANDRA O. ROBINSON, BS , MANDI J. LOPEZ, DVM, MS, PhD, Diplomate ACVS et al.
Journal: Veterinary Surgery

Objective—To compare the chondrogenic potential of adult equine mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow (MSCs) or adipose tissue (ASCs). Study Design—In vitro experimental study. Animals—Adult Thoroughbred horses (n=11). Methods—BM (5 horses; mean [±SD] age, 4±1.4 years) or adipose tissue (6 horses; mean age, 3.5±1.1 years) samples were obtained. Cryopreserved MSCs and ASCs were used for pellet cultures in stromal medium (C) or induced into chondrogenesis±transforming growth factor-3 (TGFβ3) and bone morphogenic factor-6 (BMP-6).

Category: Cartilage - Equine - Stem cells
Authors: Christopher R. Byron, DVM, MS; Matthew C. Stewart, BVSc, PhD; Allison A. Stewart, DVM, MS; Holly C. Pondenis‌
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To evaluate the effects of glucosamine on equine articular chondrocytes and synoviocytes at concentrations clinically relevant to serum and synovial fluid concentrations. Sample Population—Articular cartilage and synovium with normal gross appearance from metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints of 8 horses (1 to 10 years of age). Procedures—In vitro chondrocyte and synoviocyte cell cultures from 8 horses were treated with glucosamine (0.1 to 20 μg/mL) with or without interleukin-1 (IL-1; 10 ng/mL) for 48 hours.

Category: Cartilage - Equine