Tendon injuries are common in athletic humans and horses. Ultrasonography is the diagnostic method of choice in horses with tendon injuries but there is increasing application of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to monitor and follow-up tendon healing. A core lesion was created in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of each forelimb of four horses. One of the four horses was euthanized at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after creation of the lesion. MR examinations of the SDFT were performed immediately post mortem in a 1.5 T Siemens Symphony magnet and compared with histologic findings.
MR IMAGING FEATURES OF SURGICALLY INDUCED CORE LESIONS IN THE EQUINE SUPERFICIAL DIGITAL FLEXOR TENDON
Journal: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Journal: Equine Veterinary Education
A 3-month-old Standardbred colt was examined for acute, bilateral hindlimb swelling and lameness. Serum chemistry demonstrated elevated muscle enzymes (AST, ALT, LDH and CK). Radiographs of the hindlimbs demonstrated intact proximal sesamoid bones that were displaced distally and subluxation of the pastern joints. Ultrasonography of the affected areas revealed large, diffuse hypoechoic areas in the bodies of both hind suspensory ligaments consistent with bilateral rupture. Histology of the lesions was consistent with degenerative suspensory desmitis with acute rupture.
An investigation of the relationship between race performance and superficial digital flexor tendonitis in the Thoroughbred racehorse
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal
Reasons for performing study: There is limited information regarding the number of races and the period for evaluation of outcome which is critical for assessment of SDF tendonitis treatments.
Objective: To evaluate the re-injury rate and racing performance of Thoroughbred racehorses that sustain SDF tendonitis in relation to matched controls in terms of number of races post treatment and maximum racing performance ratings before and after injury.
Evaluation of early cellular influences of bone morphogenetic proteins 12 and 2 on equine superficial digital flexor tenocytes and bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Objective—To evaluate early cellular influences of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)12 and BMP2 on equine superficial digital flexor tenocytes (SDFTNs) and equine bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSCs).
Animals—9 adult clinically normal horses.
Effects of glycosaminoglycan polysulphate on the organisation of collagen fibres in experimentally induced tendonitis in horses
Journal: Veterinary Record
An inflammatory process was induced by intratendinous injection of bacterial collagenase into the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of the left thoracic limb of 10 horses. One week later, the tendons in five of the horses (group 1) were treated with glycosaminoglycan polysulphate (GAGPS), and the tendons of the other five (group 2) were treated with saline solution. The horses were euthanased 150 days after the collagenase injections, and samples of the SDFTs were frozen at -14°C, sectioned at 5 to 7 µm longitudinally and transversely, and stained by the picrosirius red method.
Journal: Journal of Equine Veterinary Science
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the treatment of tendinopathy induced in the superficial digital flexor tendon (TFDS) of horses, by using histologic evaluation. Six healthy crossbred geldings aged 8 to 15 years (12 ± 3) were used. The TFDS tendinopathy was provoked in both forelimbs, by intratendinous administration of 2.5 mg collagenase (2.5 mg/mL), and this procedure was considered as the beginning of the experimental phase.
Pressure distribution between the deep digital flexor tendon and the navicular bone, and the effect of raising the heels in vitro
Journal: Veterinary Record
The objectives of this study were to topographically map pressure distribution across the palmar surface of the navicular bone in response to forces applied by the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT), and evaluate the effect of raising the heels in vitro . A rig was constructed to hold an equine cadaver limb and apply controlled pressure to the navicular bone from the DDFT. Pressure-sensitive paper was used to quantify and map the resultant pressure. Changes in response to heel wedges (5° and 10°) were recorded.
Tendinitis of the proximal aspect of the superficial digital flexor tendon in horses: 12 cases (2000–2006)
Journal: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Objective—To determine clinical signs, ultrasonographic findings, and outcome of horses with tendinitis of the proximal portion of the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT; group A horses) and to compare signalment, horse use, and outcome in these horses with that of horses with tendinitis of the midmetacarpal region of the SDFT (group B horses).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—12 group A horses and 22 group B horses.
Journal: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Rupture of the lateral lobe of the proximal tendon of the biceps brachii muscle was diagnosed in an Arabian horse. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the only report of this condition in horses. Although clinical signs were helpful in the identification of the location of disease, ultrasonographic examination was a more definitive and non- invasive means of diagnosing the pathological condition. Bursoscopic examination of the intertubercular bursa was also useful in obtaining confirmation of the diagnosis, and for debridement and lavage of the bursa.
Influence of the position of the foot on MRI signal in the deep digital flexor tendon and collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint in the standing horse
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal
Reasons for performing study: Hyperintense signal is sometimes observed in ligaments and tendons of the equine foot on standing magnetic resonance examination without associated changes in size and shape. In such cases, the presence of a true lesion or an artifact should be considered. A change in position of a ligament or tendon relative to the magnetic field can induce increased signal intensity due to the magic angle effect.