Authors: Laura E Peycke, Renee McDougall, Rodrico Roca, David Dycus, Don A Hulse

Objective: To describe short-term outcomes of center of rotation of angulation (CORA)-based leveling osteotomy (CBLO) in skeletally immature dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) injury.

Study design: Retrospective case series.

Animals: Fifteen skeletally immature dogs (16 stifles).

Authors: Alexia Progin, Benjamin Voumard, Brian Friker, Franck Forterre

Objective: To compare the biomechanical properties of atlantoaxial joints (AAJs) in canine vertebral column specimens stabilized with 4 techniques (dorsal wire, modified dorsal clamp, ventral transarticular pin, and augmented ventral transarticular pin fixation) after transection of the AAJ ligaments.

Sample: 13 skull and cranial vertebral column segments from 13 cadaveric toy-breed dogs.

Authors: Liene Feldmane, Lars F H Theyse

Objective: To assess the role of the proximodistal and caudocranial relative position of the patellar ligament insertion on the tibia and patellar ligament length-to-patellar length ratio (PLL:PL) in small-breed dogs with and without grade II medial patellar luxation (MPL).

Study design: Retrospective study.

Sample population: Dogs weighing ≤15 kg, including 43 stifles with MPL and 34 control stifles.

Authors: Tom Ichinohe, Satoshi Yamakawa, Masakazu Shimada, Nobuo Kanno, Yukihiro Fujita, Yasuji Harada, Hiromichi Fujie, Yasushi Hara

Objective: To investigate the effect of an excessive tibial plateau angle (TPA) and change in compressive load on tensile forces experienced by the cranial cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments (CCL, MCL, and LCL, respectively) of canine stifle joints.

Sample: 16 cadaveric stifle joints from 16 orthopedically normal Beagles.

Authors: K. L. Perry L. M. Déjardin

Despite being one of the most commonly diagnosed causes of canine hind limb lameness, the pathogenesis of medial patellar luxation remains incompletely understood. Most cases are considered developmental with anatomical deformities leading to failure of the stifle extensor mechanism. These include coxa vara, coxa valga, reduced anteversion angle, distal external femoral torsion, excessive distal femoral varus, internal proximal tibial torsion, proximal tibial valgus, tibial tuberosity medialisation, patella alta and shallow trochlear groove.

Authors: Callie L Blackford-Winders, Michael Daubert, Aaron K Rendahl, Michael G Conzemius

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe an alternative method for trochleoplasty, semi-cylindrical recession trochleoplasty (SCRT), and compare it to trochlear block recession (TBR) in regard to recessed trochlear depth, patellar depth, patellar articular contact with the trochlea, recessed trochlear surface area, procedure time, complications and functional outcome.

Category: Stifle
Authors: Federico Longo, Tommaso Nicetto, Antonio Pozzi, Barbara Contiero, Maurizio Isola

Objective: To describe a three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) methodology to measure the tibial torsion angle (TTa) and to evaluate intrarater and interrater agreements and accuracy through comparison with anatomic measurements.

Study design: Ex vivo cadaveric study.

Sample population: Thirty-six tibiae from 18 dogs.

Category: Stifle - Tibia
Authors: Tiffany Chen, Georgia Bosscher, Derek Fox, Courtney Arnoldy, Jason Bleedorn

Objective: To report the preoperative evaluation, treatment with transarticular elastic external skeletal fixation (ESF), and outcome of a dog with bilateral medial patellar luxation (MPL) and stifle rotational deformity.

Animal: One nonambulatory, 2.5-month-old, 7.5-kg mixed-breed intact female dog.

Authors: Masakazu Shimada, Tetsuya Takagi, Nobuo Kanno, Satoshi Yamakawa, Hiromichi Fujie, Tom Ichinohe, Shuji Suzuki, Yasuji Harada, Yasushi Hara

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the changes in biomechanical characteristics following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) using simulated manual tests.

Authors: Anna J Schreiner, James P Stannard, Aaron M Stoker, Chantelle C Bozynski, Keiichi Kuroki, Cristi R Cook, James L Cook

Osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation can functionally restore large articular defects in the knee. Bipolar OCA transplantations for partial and whole joint resurfacing often have less favorable results than single-surface transplants.

Category: Cartilage - Stifle