Spine

Authors: MARIEKE ZIMMERMAN, SUE DYSON and RACHEL MURRAY
Journal: Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound

Back pain is common in horses, but there has been no large-scale in-depth study describing radiographic changes of the spinous processes, the relationship between radiographic and scintigraphic findings, and the effect of size, age, breed, or discipline.

Authors: N. de Heer, Y. S. Nout
Journal: Equine Veterinary Education

A 5-day-old Friesian colt was presented with a history of severe bilateral pelvic limb weakness since birth. Clinical examination revealed a painful dorsal deviation of the spinous processes of the lumbar vertebrae, pelvic limb paraparesis and grade 4/5 ataxia. Radiographic examination revealed kyphosis due to hypoplasia and malformation of the 5 lumbar vertebrae present. At myelography performed immediately after euthanasia, dorsal deviation of the myelographic contrast column was demonstrated at the level of T18–L4 with suspected spinal cord compression noticeable at L1.

Category: Equine - Spine
Authors: Jonathan M. Levine, DVM, DACVIM; Peter V. Scrivani, DVM, DACVR; Thomas J. Divers, DVM, DACVIM; Martin Furr, DVM, PHD, DACVIM; I. Joe Mayhew, BVSC, PhD, DSC, DACVIM; Stephen Reed, DVM, DACVIM; Gwendolyn J. Levine, DVM; et al.
Journal: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—To compare signalment of horses with cervical vertebral malformation-malarticulation (CVM) with that of control horses and to describe results of clinical examination, diagnostic imaging and necropsy findings, and reported outcome in horses with CVM.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—270 horses with CVM and 608 control horses admitted to 6 veterinary hospitals from 1992 through 2007.

Category: Equine - Spine
Authors: ANNAMARIA NAGY, SUE DYSON, ALISTAIR BARR
Journal: Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound

The transrectal ultrasonographic appearance of the lumbosacral joint was assessed in 43 horses with no history or clinical evidence of back pain or hindlimb lameness. In the majority of horses (34/43, 79.1%) the lumbosacral disc had uniform or mildly heterogeneous echogenicity. However, variation in the ultrasonographic appearance of the lumbosacral joint was also identified, including hyperechogenic regions within the lumbosacral disc with or without an acoustic shadow, and mild or moderate irregularity of the opposing surfaces of the last lumbar and the first sacral vertebral bodies.

Category: Equine - Spine - Ultrasound
Authors: S. S. W. Birmingham, S. M. Reed, J. S. Mattoon and W. J. Saville
Journal: Equine Veterinary Education

Cervical stenotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common cause of noninfectious spinal cord ataxia in horses. Intra-articular injection of corticosteroids into the facet joints of horses with CSM may relieve clinical signs of the disease process. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding the efficacy of facet injection therapy in horses with CSM.

Category: Equine - Spine
Authors: V. FUGLBJERG, J. V. NIELSEN † , P. D. THOMSEN and L. C. BERG
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Arthrosis of the articular process joints (APJs) in the caudal thoracolumbar region of horses may cause back pain and subsequent reduced performance or lameness. Ultrasound-guided injections of the APJs of the equine back have been described only briefly in the literature.

Objectives: To evaluate factors affecting the accuracy of intra-articular injections of the APJs in the caudal thoracolumbar region.

Category: Equine - Spine - Ultrasound
Authors: . Wennerstrand, C. B. Gómez Álvarez, R. Meulenbelt, C. Johnston, P. R. van Weeren, K. Roethlisberger-Holm, S. Drevemo
Journal: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology

Back problems are important contributors to poor performance in sport horses. It has been shown that kinematic analysis can differentiate horses with back problems from asymptomatic horses. The underlying mechanism can, however, only be identified in a uniform, experimental setting. Our aim was to determine if induction of back pain in a well-defined site would result in a consistent change in back movement. Back kinematics were recorded at a walk and trot on a treadmill. Unilateral back pain was then induced by injecting lactic acid into the left longissimus dorsi muscle.

Category: Equine - Spine
Authors: Meehan, L.; Dyson, S.; Murray, R.
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Clinical, radiographic and scintigraphic signs associated with spondylosis of the equine thoracolumbar spine have been poorly documented.

Objectives: To establish an objective radiographic and scintigraphic grading system for spondylosis lesions; to estimate the prevalence of spondylosis in a population of horses with back pain; and to compare the results of radiography and scintigraphy

Authors: Withers, J.M.; Voûte, L.C.; Lischer, C.J.
Journal: Equine Veterinary Education

Interpretation of cervical radiographs can be challenging due to the complex anatomy and superimposition of osseous structures on either side of the vertebrae. This report describes the investigation of neck pain in a Thoroughbred gelding following a traumatic fall. Several imaging modalities were used to demonstrate the presence of a fracture of the left cranial articular process of the fourth cervical vertebra (C4), including nuclear scintigraphy, ultrasonography, oblique radiographic projections and a novel cineradiographic technique.

Authors: Muno, J.; Samii, V.; Gallatin, L.; Robertson, J.; Chase, J.
Journal: Equine Veterinary Education

Vertebral fractures in horses are relatively common and often occur due to trauma. Clinical signs may range from neck pain and mild neurological dysfunction to tetraplegia and death. Severity of signs and prognosis depends on extent of damage to the spinal cord. In this Case Report, serial radiographs, which track the bony changes associated with fracture healing, were performed over one year.