Spine

Authors: Quantitative differences in activities of back and pelvic limb muscles during walking and trotting between chronically lame and nonlame horses
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To assess differences in activities of back and pelvic limb muscles by use of surface electromyography (SEMG) in chronically lame and nonlame horses during walking and trotting. Animals—12 nonlame horses and 12 horses with unilateral chronic mild to moderate pelvic limb lameness. Procedures—On each horse, bipolar electrodes were attached to the skin over the midpoints of the right and left longissimus thoracis (Lot), semitendinosus (Set), biceps femoris (Bif), gluteus medius (Glm), and extensor digitorum longus (Edl) muscles.

Category: Equine - Myology - Spine
Authors: D. Didierlaurent, MSc, V. Contremoulins, MSc, J-M. Denoix, DVM, PhD and F. Audigié, DVM, PhD
Journal: Veterinary Record

Lateral scintigraphic images of the necks of 12 show jumping horses, 12 thoroughbreds and 12 French trotters were evaluated. Custom-written automatic analysis software was used to segment the regions of the articular processes and vertebral symphyses from C3 to C7 and to calculate their mean radiopharmaceutical uptakes. The uptakes by the two sides of these sound horses were not significantly different, and the uptakes by the vertebral symphyses and articular processes were also similar in the three groups of horses, considering each vertebral level separately.

Authors: Gillen, A.; Dyson, S.; Murray, R.
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: The results of nuclear scintigraphic examination of the thoracolumbar synovial intervertebral articulations (facet joints) have to date been poorly documented.

Objectives: To establish an objective scintigraphic grading system for the facet joints; to investigate the relationship between the presence or absence of clinical signs of back pain and increased radiopharmaceutical uptake (IRU); and to compare the results of scintigraphy and radiography.

Authors: Down, S.S.; Henson, F.M.D.
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Arthropathy of the caudal cervical articular process joints (APJs) in the horse is documented as a cause of ataxia and paresis secondary to spinal cord compression. Enlargement of the caudal APJs is reported to increase with age, but there are no known associations of any other factors. No association of the degree of APJ enlargement with neurological signs seen has been documented. This study investigated the associations of cervical APJ enlargement at the C5-C6 and C6-C7 articulations with case subject details (breed, age, sex, usage) and clinical signs.

Category: Equine - Imaging - Radiography - Spine
Authors: Hu, A.J.; Grant, B.; Cannon, J.
Journal: Equine Veterinary Education

Vertebral body osteomyelitis in the cervical spine secondary to Rhodococcus equi has been treated both medically and surgically. This Case Report describes a 4-month-old foal exhibiting severe neurological signs from R. equi vertebral body osteomyelitis. Rapid, significant resolvement of neurological signs was noted in this case with surgical debridement and use of synthetic bone filler. The outcome suggests that aggressive surgical therapy in conjunction with synthetic allograft may be indicated in treatment of cervical vertebral body osteomyelitis.

Category: Bone - Equine - Spine
Authors: N. J. Vos, DVM, P. J. Pollock, BVMS, DipECVS, M. Harty, MVB, T. Brennan, MVB, S. de Blaauw, DVM and H. McAllister, MVB, DVM, PhD, DipECVDI
Journal: Veterinary Record

Four horses and one pony, ranging in age from one to 11 years, were diagnosed with two different types of odontoid peg fractures. Their clinical signs included reluctance to move the neck and head, dullness, and abnormalities of gait. Radiography was essential for the diagnosis, and the method of treatment varied depending on the severity of the neurological signs, the intended use of the horse, and financial constraints. Optimal treatment requires a technique that allows decompression, anatomical alignment, and stabilisation of the odontoid fracture.

Category: Equine - Spine - Traumatology
Authors: Girodroux, M.; Dyson, S.; Murray, R.
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Back pain is well recognised as a cause of poor performance in horses, but the role of lesions of the thoracolumbar synovial intervertebral articulations (facet joints) has not been well documented.

Objectives: To describe the clinical features, radiographic appearance and location of facet joint lesions and determine if there was any breed, gender, age, bodyweight or work discipline predilection.

Category: Equine - Imaging - Radiography - Spine
Authors: Jonathan M. Levine, DVM, DACVIM; Peter P. Ngheim, BS; Gwendolyn J. Levine, DVM; Noah D. Cohen, VMD, MPH, PhD, DACVIM
Journal: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—To determine sex, breed, and age distributions in a population of horses with cervical vertebral compressive myelopathy (CVCM), compared with contemporaneous control horses. Design—Retrospective case-control study. Animals—811 horses with CVCM and 805 control horses. Procedures—The Veterinary Medical Database was searched to identify horses with CVCM and contemporaneous control horses registered between July 1974 and August 2007.

Category: Equine - Spine